Types of Information Sources

Types of information sources

Scientific information is published in several types and formats:


Both the type of a publication (book, article, presentation…) and the format of a publication (printed, online) have an influence from which information source you must search them for.


Books can de found from Library databases, like UEF Primo Library collection. Electronic books can also be browsed and searched from electronic books platforms (e-book databases, like Ebook central). Google Books can search across the full-text content of a book, but the whole book is not necessarily available for online reading.


Articles can be searched for from:
Reference databases, like Scopus or Web of Science, which collect metadata of huge amount of publications and publishers.
Full-text databases usually offer access and search tools to a limited collection of electronic articles, typically the journals published by one publisher only.
UEF Primo: internationals articles/ all e-materials can search across several reference or full-text databases in tandem.
Google or Google Scholar can reach articles from various sources, like full-text databases or open access archives and homepages.

Notice that there might be different versions about articles available online: pre-prints (the contents might change during the publishing process), post-prints/final drafts (contents are corrected) and published versions (also layout – page numbers etc. are ready). Always aim to use the latest version of the article as your source.

‘Grey literature’

Unformal publishing channels, like presentations, lectures, reports and working papers, are available through Google searches. You can also look for publications from organisations’ own web pages or online archives.