The scientific work requires knowledge and a connection to former research. So utilising other people’s work is not only admissible but essential. Still, the author of an article, chart, picture or invention always has a copyright to his/her work and must be mentioned and credited in a proper way. This is called citing.

The citing is done in a very formal way. This has two purposes. 1) to separate the other people’s ideas from your own brainwork (=citing within the text). 2) to give sufficient information about the publications used, so that everyone can locate the original paper (=the bibliography of publications mentioned in a text). See a video by David Taylor (3:13):


The references in databases contain the same elements of identifying and locating the publications: Author, year, title, journal name etc. = Metadata



TIP: Many databases (e.g. Scopus, ProQuest, UEF Primo) provide a tool for formulating a ready-made citation for a reference list: